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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

AUTHORITY   AND   THE   INDIVIDUAL
ness of Western culture as something with a unity
transcending national boundaries; for apart from this
there is only one psychological motive which is
adequate for the purpose, and that is the motive of
fear of external enemies. But fear is a negative motive,
and one which ceases to be operative in the moment
of victory. When it is compared with the love of a
Greek for his native city it is obvious how very much
smaller is the hold which loyalty based merely on
fear has on the instincts and passions of ordinary men
and women in the absence of immediate and pressing
dangers.
Government, from the earliest times at which it
existed, has had two functions, one negative and one
positive. Its negative function has been to prevent
private violence, to protect life and property, to
enact criminal law and secure its 6nforcement. But in
addition to this it has had a positive purpose, namely,
to facilitate the realization of desires deemed to be
common to the great majority of citizens. The
positive functions of government at most times have
been mainly confined to war: if an enemy could be
conquered and his territory acquired, everybody in
the victorious nation profited in a greater or less
degree. But now the positive functions of government
are enormously enlarged. There is first of all educa-
tion, consisting not only of the acquisition of scho-
lastic attainments, but also of tie instilling of certain
loyalties and certain beliefs. These are those which
the State considers desirable, and, in a lesser degree,